See also: List of optimization algorithms. This section may have been copied and pasted from another location, possibly in violation of Wikipedia's copyright policy.

Please be sure that the supposed source of the copyright violation is not itself a Wikipedia mirror. May Main article: Iterative method. See also: Newton's method in optimization , Quasi-Newton method , Finite difference , Approximation theory , and Numerical analysis. Main article: Heuristic algorithm. Memetic algorithm Differential evolution Evolutionary algorithms Dynamic relaxation Genetic algorithms Hill climbing with random restart Nelder-Mead simplicial heuristic : A popular heuristic for approximate minimization without calling gradients Particle swarm optimization Cuckoo search Gravitational search algorithm Artificial bee colony optimization Simulated annealing Stochastic tunneling Tabu search Reactive Search Optimization RSO [9] implemented in LIONsolver.

Main article: Molecular modeling. Main article: Computational systems biology. Main article: List of optimization software. Brachistochrone Curve fitting Deterministic global optimization Goal programming Important publications in optimization Least squares Mathematical Optimization Society formerly Mathematical Programming Society Mathematical optimization algorithms Mathematical optimization software Process optimization Simulation-based optimization Test functions for optimization Variational calculus Vehicle routing problem.

In Floudas, C. Encyclopedia of Optimization.

### e04 – Minimizing or Maximizing a Function

Boston: Springer. Erwin Diewert J Optimization algorithms for networks and graphs. CRC Press 2nd edition. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems. Reactive Search and Intelligent Optimization. Springer Verlag. Archived from the original on Soviet Journal of Computer and Systems Sciences. Gravitation and Cosmology. Bibcode : GrCo American Economic Review. Dynamic Macroeconomic Theory. Harvard University Press. Malliaris Abstract Archived at the Wayback Machine. International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics. January July Bibcode : ITAP February Journal of Construction Engineering and Management.

Archived from the original on 18 December Retrieved 14 September Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. Optimization : Algorithms , methods , and heuristics. Unconstrained nonlinear. Golden-section search Interpolation methods Line search Nelder—Mead method Successive parabolic interpolation.

Trust region Wolfe conditions. Newton's method. Constrained nonlinear.

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Barrier methods Penalty methods. Augmented Lagrangian methods Sequential quadratic programming Successive linear programming. Convex optimization. Cutting-plane method Reduced gradient Frank—Wolfe Subgradient method. Affine scaling Ellipsoid algorithm of Khachiyan Projective algorithm of Karmarkar. Simplex algorithm of Dantzig Revised simplex algorithm Criss-cross algorithm Principal pivoting algorithm of Lemke.

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## Practical Augmented Lagrangian Methods for Constrained Optimization

James S. Albus Ruzena Bajcsy Benjamin S. Veloso John N. If your problem does not admit a unique local minimum which can be hard to test unless the function is convex , and you do not have prior information to initialize the optimization close to the solution, you may need a global optimizer. The parameters are specified with ranges given to numpy.

By default, 20 steps are taken in each direction:. All methods are exposed as the method argument of scipy. Computing gradients, and even more Hessians, is very tedious but worth the effort.

## Mathematical optimization - Wikipedia

Symbolic computation with Sympy may come in handy. A very common source of optimization not converging well is human error in the computation of the gradient. You can use scipy. It returns the norm of the different between the gradient given, and a gradient computed numerically:. See also scipy. This function admits a minimum in 0, 0. Starting from an initialization at 1, 1 , try to get within 1e-8 of this minimum point.

Least square problems, minimizing the norm of a vector function, have a specific structure that can be used in the Levenberg—Marquardt algorithm implemented in scipy. What if we compute the norm ourselves and use a good generic optimizer BFGS :. If the function is linear, this is a linear-algebra problem, and should be solved with scipy.

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Least square problems occur often when fitting a non-linear to data. While it is possible to construct our optimization problem ourselves, scipy provides a helper function for this purpose: scipy. Box bounds correspond to limiting each of the individual parameters of the optimization. Note that some problems that are not originally written as box bounds can be rewritten as such via change of variables.

Both scipy. Equality and inequality constraints specified as functions: and.

The above problem is known as the Lasso problem in statistics, and there exist very efficient solvers for it for instance in scikit-learn. In general do not use generic solvers when specific ones exist. If you are ready to do a bit of math, many constrained optimization problems can be converted to non-constrained optimization problems using a mathematical trick known as Lagrange multipliers.

Prerequisites Numpy Scipy Matplotlib. See also References Mathematical optimization is very … mathematical. If you want performance, it really pays to read the books: Convex Optimization by Boyd and Vandenberghe pdf available free online.

Numerical Optimization , by Nocedal and Wright. Detailed reference on gradient descent methods. Practical Methods of Optimization by Fletcher: good at hand-waving explanations. Chapters contents Knowing your problem Convex versus non-convex optimization Smooth and non-smooth problems Noisy versus exact cost functions Constraints A review of the different optimizers Getting started: 1D optimization Gradient based methods Newton and quasi-newton methods Full code examples Examples for the mathematical optimization chapter Gradient-less methods Global optimizers Practical guide to optimization with scipy Choosing a method Making your optimizer faster Computing gradients Synthetic exercices Special case: non-linear least-squares Minimizing the norm of a vector function Curve fitting Optimization with constraints Box bounds General constraints Full code examples Examples for the mathematical optimization chapter.

Dimensionality of the problem The scale of an optimization problem is pretty much set by the dimensionality of the problem , i.

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Note It can be proven that for a convex function a local minimum is also a global minimum. Note You can use different solvers using the parameter method. Note scipy. Code will follow.